anime = Japanese cartoons, there are anime for all age groups and both genders and are far more common than cartoons are in the west. There are special cartoons for children, teenagers and even adults.
hiragana = used to write Japanese words and is used for grammar. This kana is used for words that are Japanese in origin and in some cases to represent kanji.
kana = the syllable "alphabets" the Japanese language uses, there are two types, hiragana and katakana.
kanji = "words" of the Japanese language, these are not just used as words but can be used as compounds to create new words and ideas. Kanji don't have just one way of reading them(unlike kana) but their reading depends on the context.
katakana = used to write non-Japanese words (like English terms they may use) and things like foreign names (like Kia is written in the header).
Hiragana and katakana cheat table
For those who haven't learned hiragana or katakana yet, here is a table of all the kana of those sets. Left one is hiragana and right one is katakana. So if you look at the S row and the U column, SU is す in hiragana and ス in katakana. You can also look it up the other way around, you look for the kana you found, and then can find to the consonant and vowel that belong with it, creating the romaji of the kana.
N in the header means normal set, D means the dakuten sound. Dakuten is written with " on the kana. KI (き) becomes GI (ぎ) when used with a dakuten. Dakuten work the same both in hiragana and katakana.
|あ||ア||い||イ||う||ウ||え||エ||お||オ||These are the main vowels|
|S||Z||さ||サ||し||シ||す||ス||せ||セ||そ||ソ||SI is actually pronounced as SHI, ZI is JI|
|T||D||た||タ||ち||チ||つ||ツ||て||テ||と||ト||TI is pronounced CHI and TU is TSU, DI is JI and DU is ZU|
|H||B+P||は||ハ||ひ||ヒ||ふ||フ||へ||ヘ||ほ||ホ||HU is pronounced FU, normal dakuten is B but handakuten(the little circle) makes P (は・ば・ぱ）|
|Y||や||ヤ||ゆ||ユ||よ||ヨ||Other kana of this set are obsolete, also no dakuten|
|W||わ||ワ||を||ヲ||Other kana of this set are obsolete, also no dakuten|
|ん||ン||This is the only sound without a vowel, it's an N, but it is as long as any of the other sounds in pronuncation|